This 21-item scale measures adolescents’ degree of addiction to computer- and videogames.
Following previous game addiction scales, we based our scale on the criteria for pathological
gambling found in the DSM-IV. Three items were created for each of the following seven criteria:
salience, tolerance, mood modification, relapse, withdrawal, conflict, and problems. The
dimensional structure of the scale was investigated in two independent samples of Dutch
adolescent gamers (N = 352 and N = 369). In both samples, a second-order factor model
described our data best. The items with the highest measurement loadings from each of the
seven first-order factors were selected to create a 7-item scale. The 21-item scale showed high
reliabilities with a Cronbach’s alpha of .94 in the first sample and .92 in the second sample. The
shortened 7-item version also showed high reliabilities with a Cronbach alpha of .87 in the first
sample and .82 in the second sample.
Lemmens, J. S., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2009). Development and validation of a game
addiction scale for adolescents. Media Psychology, 12, 77-95.
Contrary to below, the item-categories were not displayed and the questions were completely
randomized. Every question was preceded by the phrase “How often during the last six months...”
(Response options: never, almost never, sometimes, often, very often)
Instruction: “The following questions are about your experiences with games over the last six
How often during the last six months...
...did you think about playing a game all day long? *
...did you spend much free time on games?
...have you felt addicted to a game?
...did you spend increasing amounts of time on games? *
...did you play longer than intended?
...were you unable to stop once you started playing?
...did you play games to forget about real life? *
...have you played games to release anger or stress?
...have you played games to feel better?
...have others unsuccessfully tried to reduce your game use? *
...were you unable to reduce your game time?
...have you failed when trying to reduce game time?
...have you felt bad when you were unable to play? *
...have you become angry when unable to play?
...have you become stressed when unable to play?
...did you have fights with others (e.g., family, friends) over your time spent on games? *
...have you neglected others (e.g., family, friends) because you were playing games?
...have you lied about time spent on games?
...have you neglected other important activities (e.g., school, work, sports) to play games? *
...has your time on games caused sleep deprivation?
...did you feel bad after playing for a long time?
* Included in the 7-item scale.